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The Impact of Marijuana Policies on Youth: Clinical, Research, and Legal Update youth, American Academy of Pediatrics, AAP, Studies, Research

·        These consequences include impaired short-term memory and decreased concentration, attention span, and problem solving, which clearly interfere with learning. Alterations in motor control, coordination, judgment, reaction time, and tracking ability have also been documented; these may contribute to unintentional deaths and injuries among adolescents (especially those associated with motor vehicles if adolescents drive while intoxicated by marijuana).
·        Negative health effects on lung function associated with smoking marijuana have also been documented, and studies linking marijuana use with higher rates of psychosis in patients with a predisposition to schizophrenia have recently been published, raising concerns about longer-term psychiatric effects. New research has also demonstrated that the adolescent brain, particularly the prefrontal cortex areas controlling judgment and decision-making, is not fully developed until the mid-20s, raising questions about how any substance use may affect the developing brain. Research has shown that the younger an adolescent begins using drugs, including marijuana, the more likely it is that drug dependence or addiction will develop in adulthood.
·         A recent analysis of 4 large epidemiologic trials found that marijuana use during adolescence is associated with reductions in the odds of high school completion and degree attainment and increases in the use of other illicit drugs and suicide attempts in a dose-dependent fashion that suggests that marijuana use is causative.

1
Medical Marijuana: The State of the Science Studies, Research, medscape, mental health, Side-Effects, heart, lungs, body, Brain, youth, cannabis, Resource Paper

Medical cannabinoids are here to stay, but intellectual honesty is imperative if we are moving toward exploiting their potential benefits. Owing to rising THC concentrations of products, "medical" marijuana is rarely good medicine. This review has identified the dangers associated with whole­plant marijuana, whether used for recreational or for supposedly medical purposes.

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Monitoring Health Concerns Related to Marijuana in Colorado: 2014 Colorado, health, Pregnancy, youth, Report, Statistical Reports

Appendix

Changes in Marijuana Use Patterns, Systematic Literature Review, and Possible Marijuana-Related Health Effects

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Problems With the Medicalization of Marijuana Doctors, treatment, youth, Medical

Because regulatory standards of the production process vary by state, the composition, purity, and concentration of the active constituents of marijuana are also likely to vary. This is especially problematic because unlike most other prescription medications that are single active compounds, marijuana contains more than 100 cannabinoids, terpenoids, and flavonoids that produce individual, interactive, and entourage effects.

No other prescription medication is smoked; concerns remain about the long-term risks of respiratory problems associated with smoking marijuana, which are a subject of active investigation.
5 THCis already available in a pill approved by the FDA, yet this form seems to be less desirable to those seeking medical marijuana; this may in part be because its euphoric effects are not immediate and cannot be reliably controlled, unlike smoked marijuana. 6

The current system of dispensing marijuana does not safeguard adequately against the potential for diversion and abuse.

 

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If You Thought Marijuana was Harmless, Medical Researchers Have News for You health, addiction, pills, youth, Research, social costs

As expected, prescription cannabinoids are effective antiemetics and appetite stimulants, and some studies report their effectiveness as adjunct therapy in chronic pain syndromes, spasticity, and glaucoma. Similar results are reported by the few studies of smoked cannabis plant for these same indications. As noted earlier, safe and effective alternative treatments for all these syndromes are available.  Studies assessing psychological aspects of smoked cannabis and prescription cannabinoids uniformly report undesired effects: acute psychosis, poorer prognosis of chronic psychosis, or cognitive dulling in medical patients. 

5
Legalized Marijuana Boosts High School Dropout Rates dropout, college, youth, young adults

"More than anything, what we have done is provided good, solid evidence that there is a direct link between marijuana policies and education," lead author Andrew Plunk, PhD, from Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk,

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What Educators Should Know About Marijuana Infographics, educators, Brain, youth, charts

KNOW YOUR A,B,C,D’s   …  Absent, Behavior, Course Grade = Drugs
 

7
Marijuana use in adolescence may increase risk for psychotic symptoms youth, adolescent, Psychosis

Analysis indicated that for each year adolescent boys engaged in regular marijuana use, their projected level of subsequent subclinical psychotic symptoms increased by 21% and projected risk for subclinical paranoia or hallucinations increased by 133% and 92%, respectively.

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Edibles And Concentrates Are Red-Hot, According To Latest Numbers edibles, Colorado, youth

"The rapid growth in concentrates and edibles is the continuation of a two-year trend, as consumers increasingly prefer alternative consumption methods to smoking," BDS Analytics CEO Roy Bingham told Civilized in an e-mail. 
Also, increased are hospitalization, ER visits and vehicle fatal accidents. 

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State Estimates of Adolescent Marijuana Use and Perceptions of Risk of Harm From Marijuana Use: 2013 and 2014 SAMHSA, youth 10
Death of Muslim teen was an accident, not a hate crime, police investigation finds youth, Death, Washington

Warsame told his schoolmate he had never smoked marijuana and would like to try it, and the two smoked together, according to the report.

A toxicology screen by the medical examiner found “relatively high levels”  of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent in marijuana, in Warsame’s system.

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STATE ESTIMATES OF ADOLESCENT PAST MONTH MARIJUANA USE youth, SAMHSA


With youth usage and perception of harm having significantly  increased the past 4 it would be better to compare data to 10 years ago not last year.

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Marijuana Use: Detrimental to Youth American Academy of Pediatrics, youth, Research, Side-Effects

In summary, marijuana use is harmful to children and adolescents.  For this reason, the American College of Pediatricians opposes its legalization for recreational use and urges extreme caution in legalizing it for medicinal use.  Likewise, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) recently offered their own policy statement opposing efforts to legalize marijuana. They similarly pointed out that “marijuana’s deleterious effects on adolescent brain development, cognition, and social functioning may have immediate and long-term implications, including increased risk of motor vehicle accidents, sexual victimization, academic failure, lasting decline in intelligence measures, psychopathology, addiction, and psychosocial and occupational impairment.” Thus the AACAP (a) opposes efforts to legalize marijuana, (b) supports initiatives to increase awareness of marijuana’s harmful effects on adolescents, (c) supports improved access to evidence-based treatment, rather than emphasis on criminal charges, for adolescents with cannabis use disorder, and (d) supports careful monitoring of the effects of marijuana-related policy changes on child and adolescent mental health.49 The College agrees with this position on marijuana.

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Study Links Marijuana Use to Greater Risk for Developing Addiction to Other Drugs addiction, youth, Studies

A new study suggests marijuana smokers may be significantly more likely to develop an addiction to other drugs and alcohol than people who don’t use marijuana.
The study, published in JAMA Psychiatry, included almost 35,000 adults who were interviewed three years apart. At the time of the first interview, almost 1,300 used marijuana. After three years, two-thirds of people who used marijuana had some form of substance use disorder, compared with less than 20 percent of people who did not use marijuana in the previous year.

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The Legalization of Marijuana in Colorado: The Impact Latest Results for Colorado Youth and Adult Marijuana Use Colorado, impact, youth

January 2016 Update:
YOUTH USAGE: 
• In the two year average (2013/2014) since Colorado legalized recreational marijuana, youth past month marijuana use increased 20 percent compared to the two year average prior to legalization (2011/2012). o Nationally youth past month marijuana use declined 4 percent during the same time.
• The latest 2013/2014 results show Colorado youth ranked #1 in the nation for past month marijuana use, up from #4 in 2011/2012.
COLLEGE USAGE:
•Colorado college age past month marijuana use for 2013/2014 was 62 percent higher than the national average
ADULT USAGE:
•The latest 2013/2014 results show Colorado adults ranked #1 in the nation for past month marijuana use, up from #7 in 2011/2012.
• Colorado adult past month marijuana use for 2013/2014 was 104 percent higher than the national average compared to 51 percent higher in 2011/2012.

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Is legal 'medical' marijuana linked to high youth substance abuse rates? youth, Medical

Is legal 'medical' marijuana linked to high youth substance abuse rates?

Let's look at Colorado's substance abuse rates in 2011- 2012 when medical marijuana was legal but recreational pot was not, Colorado youth ages 12- 17 and 18- 25 ranked in the top percentiles for most substance abuse rates: illicit drugs, marijuana, cocaine, non-medical use of painkillers and ranked the lowest for perception of great risk of smoking marijuana.

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Can we please stop pretending marijuana is harmless? Myth, news article, THC, youth, Harmless

Levy says. “We are simply not prepared for the fallout of marijuana legalization.”
Each hit of THC rewires the function of this critical cognitive system: Early evidence in mice has shown that repeated exposure to THC causes these receptors to disappear altogether, blunting the natural response to positive behaviors and requiring higher doses to achieve the same effect. Marijuana exploits essential pathways we’ve evolved to retrieve a memory, to delicately regulate our metabolism, and to derive happiness from everyday life.

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E-Cigarettes: A Review of New Trends in Cannabis Use cannabis; vaping; electronic cigarette; adolescence, youth

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic investigations are also required. Finally, the health consequences of passive vaping should be also considered.  
In conclusion, the new social phenomenon of vaping may slide from nicotine towards other psychoactive drugs (e.g., THC); it therefore deserves the urgent scientific investigation and strict risk assessments which are especially important when young people are concerned. In particular, the presence of toxic substances in the cannabis aerosols generated by e-cigs—from multiple models, brands, BHO and e-liquid manufacturers—need to be investigated.

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Public Policy Statement on Marijuana, Cannabinoids and Legalization Research, legalization, asam, Long-term, Pregnancy, adolescent, youth, cigarettes

Given these statistics.... is legalization worth the consequences....
Cannabis has been found to be the most frequently used drug in the U.S. after alcohol, tobacco and caffeine. 
The risk of developing addiction associated with cannabis use has been reported to increase to about 17% among those who start using marijuana in adolescence, and to 25-50% among those who smoke marijuana daily.
The long-term effects of marijuana use include altered brain development and cognitive impairment, including impaired neural connectivity in specific brain regions, decreased activity in prefrontal regions, and reduced volumes in the hippocampus.
Cannabis is most commonly consumed through smoking, a route of drug delivery that predictably has a variety of negative effects on pulmonary function. Smoke from marijuana combustion has been shown to contain a number of carcinogens and cocarcinogens, as well as many of the toxins, irritants, and carcinogens as tobacco smoke.  Additionally, marijuana smokers tend to inhale more deeply and hold their breath longer than cigarette smokers, which leads to a greater exposure per breath to “tar” (the carcinogenic solids in smoke). Regular smoking of marijuana, in the absence of tobacco, produces visible and microscopic injury to the large airways
http://www.asam.org/docs/default-source/publicy-policy-statements/mariju...

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Under the Influence of Parents parenting, youth

Survey highlights:

  • Parents still have a big influence over their children when it comes to using marijuana.
  • More than 60 percent of marijuana users don't think it's addictive or damaging to the brain.
  • One in 10 surveyed report being high at school and while driving, on a daily basis.
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Opinion: Marijuana's Adverse Impact on Youth youth, opinion, college

The commonly heard expression that “no one ever died from a marijuana overdose” minimizes the cost of unmet potential and inability to fully engage in the challenges of daily life. Scientific research cites multiple impacts of the recreational misuse of marijuana.

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HHS finds marijuana use up 12%, perception of harm down youth, perception, usage

This week, the Department of Health and Human Services found that marijuana use among all Americans 12 and over – especially those over 26 – significantly increased in 2014 compared to 2013. The number of 16 and 17 year-olds using marijuana in the past month also increased, (14.2% versus 15.0%).

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High School Students’ Use of Electronic Cigarettes to Vaporize Cannabis Vaping, youth

Rates of vaporizing cannabis using e-cigarettes were high. These findings raise concerns about the lack of e-cigarette regulations and the potential use of e-cigarettes for purposes other than vaping nicotine.

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Teens find a new use for e-cigarettes: Vaping marijuana Vaping, youth

About 27% of high school students who have used both marijuana and e-cigarettes reported using the devices to vaporize cannabis. Those most likely to vaporize pot with e-cigarettes included males and younger students.

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2015 9 The Legalization of Marijuana in Colorado: The Impact Colorado, Behavior, Survey, youth
According to the Colorado Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2014:
 
• 13.6 percent of adults (18+ years old) are current users of marijuana
• Approximately 1 out of 3 current users report using marijuana daily
• A little less than 1 in 5 (18.8 percent) report driving after using marijuana
• Highest current use demographics: 
o Younger adults (18 to 24 years old)
o Less than high school education
o Lower household income
o Black
o Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual adults
o Men 
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Marijuana Use: Detrimental to Youth youth, pedestrians, legalization, ACP, Resource Paper

In summary, marijuana use is harmful to children and adolescents.  For this reason, the American College of Pediatricians opposes its legalization for recreational use and urges extreme caution in legalizing it for medicinal use.  Likewise, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) recently offered their own policy statement opposing efforts to legalize marijuana. They similarly pointed out that “marijuana’s deleterious effects on adolescent brain development, cognition, and social functioning may have immediate and long-term implications, including increased risk of motor vehicle accidents, sexual victimization, academic failure, lasting decline in intelligence measures, psychopathology, addiction, and psychosocial and occupational impairment.” 

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Where There’s Smoke … youth, Colorado, college, Potency, legalization, alcohol

Marijuana use by kids between the ages of 12 and 17 is 58 percent higher in Colorado than the national average, according to the RHMIDTA. The rate of use among college-age adults is 54 percent above the national average. Drug-related suspensions from Colorado schools jumped 34 percent from the 2005-2009 period to the 2010-2014 period, while alcohol-related suspensions stayed flat.
 "Everything they said would happen has not," says Gorman. "They said alcohol use would go down. Alcohol use went up. They said it would eliminate the (marijuana) black market. We are the black market. The trends show that legalization is not working."
 

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Pot death: Teen leaps 4 stories after eating marijuana cookie youth, edibles, Death

Over the next few hours, the man showed erratic speech and hostile behaviors, the report said. About 2.5 hours after he ate the whole cookie, he jumped off a balcony on the fourth floor of his building, and died from trauma from the fall, the report said.

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Medical marijuana laws and adolescent marijuana use in the USA from 1991 to 2014: results from annual, repeated cross-sectional surveys Lancet, usage, youth, journal, Studies

Our findings, consistent with previous evidence, suggest that passage of state medical marijuana laws does not increase adolescent use of marijuana. However, overall, adolescent use is higher in states that ever passed such a law than in other states. State-level risk factors other than medical marijuana laws could contribute to both marijuana use and the passage of medical marijuana laws, and such factors warrant investigation.

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Adolescents Who View Medical Marijuana Advertising Are More Likely to Use the Drug youth, advertising, usage

Seeing advertisements for medical marijuana was related to middle school adolescents' intentions to use marijuana and their actual marijuana use one year later. Researchers say this is particularly important given that the mean age of adolescents surveyed was 13 and initiation of marijuana use during early adolescence is associated with poor school performance, neuropsychological performance deficits and further use of other illicit drugs, such as heroin and cocaine.

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Gateway to Curiosity: Medical Marijuana Ads and Intention and Use During Middle School youth, advertising

Finally, from a public health standpoint, it is crucial that we begin to address regulatory standards for this industry given that it is in the early stages; we have a unique opportunity to shape the industry practices as legislation continues to evolve. This could help decrease potentially numerous problems similar to those that have occurred with both alcohol and tobacco advertising.

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Connecting The Dots On Rising Gang Violence In Denver crime, youth, violence, gang

The U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency, in their 2013 National Drug Threat Assessment Summary, noted,“Transnational Criminal Organizations (TCO) and criminal groups will increasingly exploit the opportunities for marijuana cultivation and trafficking created in states that allow ‘medical marijuana’ grows and have legalized marijuana sales and possession.“ Meaning that marijuana legalization may well increase criminal gang activity.

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Saying "No" to Legal Marijuana? video, madras, youth, Business, evidence

Bertha Madras speak on the evidence that pot is not a medicine.  

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Smoking marijuana may cause early puberty and stunts growth in boys youth, Studies, Research, puberty

Boys who smoke marijuana go through puberty earlier but grow more slowly than those who have never smoked the drug according to a study presented today at the European Congress of Endocrinology in Dublin, Ireland. The findings will lead to a better understanding of the dangers of drug abuse on growth and development of children.

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Don't Legalize Marijuana pot, normlize, Colorado-0, youth, Medical, science, Taxes

The raw cannabis plant has no medicinal value. For the same reasons people no longer chew bark to cure headaches but instead buy aspirin, there is no medical reason to smoke pot. The pharmaceutical profession exists to isolate active medical ingredients from herbs and plants (or synthesize them) and to provide safe, standardized doses with minimal side effects. This is how every other drug works. There is no scientific or medical reason to make marijuana an exception.

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Marijuana users may have ‘false memories’ Brain, Biomedical, youth, memory, Studies, Research

Participants in a study who had used the drug daily for around three years in their teens had an abnormally shaped hippocampus by the time they were in their early 20s.
They also performed around 18 per cent worse in long-term memory tests than individuals who had never touched the drug.

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Is marijuana a gateway drug? youth 37
Teen cannabis users have poor long-term memory in adulthood youth, memory, Schizophrenia

The study is among the first to say the hippocampus is shaped differently in heavy marijuana smokers and the different looking shape is directly related to poor long-term memory performance.
The study also found that young adults with schizophrenia who abused cannabis as teens performed about 26 percent more poorly on memory tests than young adults with schizophrenia who never abused cannabis.

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Fox News doctor: ‘Crack babies’ come from women ‘smoking this whole marijuana business’ Pregnancy, baby, youth, addiction, news video clip, news article 39
2012-2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health National Maps of Prevalence Estimates, by State Survey, Studies, youth, increase, usage 40
Only On 2: Investigation Reveals Medical Marijuana Is Getting Into School Kids’ Hands youth, School, Medical 41
Monitoring the Future Studies, youth

Monitoring the Future is an ongoing study of the behaviors, attitudes, and values of American secondary school students, college students, and young adults.

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The Problem with Pot youth, opinion, Bennett 43
Doctors say more kids using drugs since marijuana legalized youth, Washington, students 44
Review finds ‘significant link’ between cannabis use and onset of mania symptoms mania, bi-polar, Studies, youth, mental health

Dr Marwaha said: "The observed tendency for cannabis use to precede or coincide with rather than follow mania symptoms, and the more specific association between cannabis use and new onset manic symptoms, suggests potential causal influences from cannabis use to the development of mania. It is a significant link."

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The Impact of Marijuana Policies on Youth: Clinical, Research, and Legal Update youth, clinical, Research, legalization, pedestrians 46
Denver 8th Graders Use 350% Higher than National Average Colorado-0, national, youth 47
Denver 8th Graders Use 350% Higher than National Average youth, Colorado-0, denver, usage, increase

Where do the students get their marijuana? 38% reported they got from a friend who obtains it legally, 23% reported from their parents, 22% from the black market, 9% from medical marijuana dispensaries, 4% from medical marijuana cardholders, 3% from retail marijuana stores.

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Trends in Use of and Attitudes Toward Marijuana Among Youth Before and After Decriminalization: The Case of California 2007-2013 youth, trends, case, decriminalization, california

These results provide empirical evidence to support concerns that decriminalization may be a risk factor for future increases in youth marijuana use and acceptance.

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American Academy of Pediatrics Reaffirms Opposition to Legalizing Marijuana for Recreational or Medical Use youth, AAP, American Academy of Pediatrics, usage
  • ·        “Making it more available to adults – even if restrictions are in place – will increase the access for teens. Just the campaigns to legalize marijuana can have the effect of persuading adolescents that marijuana is not dangerous, which can have a devastating impact on their lifelong health and development.”
  • ·        For adolescents, marijuana can impair memory and concentration, interfering with learning, and is linked to lower odds of completing high school or obtaining a college degree. It can alter motor control, coordination and judgment, which may contribute to unintentional deaths and injuries. Regular use is also linked to psychological problems, poorer lung health, and a higher likelihood of drug dependence in adulthood. 
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Trends in use of marijuana and attitudes toward marijuana among youth before and after decriminalization: The case of California 2007–2013 IJDP, youth, trends

In 2012 and afterwards California 12th graders as compared to their peers in other states became (a) 25% more likely to have used marijuana in the past 30 days, (b) 20% less likely to perceive regular marijuana use as a great health risk, (c) 20% less likely to strongly disapprove of regular marijuana use, and (d) about 60% more likely to expect to be using marijuana five years in the future. Analysis of 10th graders raises the possibility that the findings among 12th graders may reflect a cohort effect that was set into place two years earlier.

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2014 Marijuana Use In Colorado Colorado, usage, youth, Impairment
  • 1 in 3 users are daily users
  • Black adults in Colorado are using at almost 50% higher than the state average for adults; Hispanics have the lowest use rates
  • Low income Colorado adults are using at higher rates than the state average
  • Almost a third of 18-24 year olds are using marijuana
  • Almost a third of gay and lesbian adults are using marijuana - more than twice the state average for adults
  • Almost 1 in five reported driving after using marijuana
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Marijuana use rises in states with legalization usage, youth, increase 53
Survey: Local teens smoking pot increased Florida, Teens, youth 54
How Marijuana Affects the Brain Infographics, Brain, youth

“It’s a natural plant! What’s the big deal?” —A common declaration among youth who believe that the effects of marijuana are harmless and that the substance shouldn’t be regulated.  Regardless of public opinion, the science is clear:  Regular recreational use of marijuana during adolescence is harmful to the brain, which isn’t fully developed until the age of 25.

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Marijuana Harmfulness to Youth Wellness youth, adolescent, ATTC, Harmless 56
Myth: Legalization of Marijuana in Other Countries Has Been a Success Myth, legalization, youth, harm 57
Marijuana: The Myths Are Killing Us youth, legalization, Myth 58
Monitoring the Future- Perception of Harm monitoring the future, perception, youth
  • Most Marijuana Use Begins in Adolescence: 78% of the 2.4 million people who began using in the last year were aged 12 to 20.
  • As perception of harm decreases, teen marijuana use increases.
  • Every Day, 3,287 Teens Use Marijuana for the First Time
59
Portugal decriminalised drugs. Results? Use by teens doubled in a decade with nearly a fifth of 15 and 16-year-olds using drugs Portugal, Teens, youth, usage, Studies 60
Prosecutors urge others to oppose marijuana Arizona, youth, usage 61
Brad King: Do not let the ‘Colorado Calamity’ spread to Florida Colorado, OpEd, Amendment 2, crime, youth, emergency room, highways, car crashes, Fatalities 62
Sheriff Gee: Why parents should be alarmed about Amendment 2 OpEd, Sheriff, Children, youth 63
Drug czar: Teen pot use could fuel opioid abuse Teen, youth, opioid, abuse 64
Commentary from Florida’s Representative to the National D.A.R.E. Youth Advisory Board youth, addiction 65
Sheriff Don Eslinger: Amendment 2 puts families and communities in danger amendment, youth, Florida 66
Dr. Drew on marijuana: “It acts like an opiate and causes severe addiction” addiction, youth, Dr. Drew 67
Medical Matters: The health and social benefits of abstaining from cannabis health, youth, Studies, dropout

The large meta-analysis – a study of combined previous research – showed that people who are daily users of cannabis before the age of 17 are more than 60 per cent less likely to complete secondary school or to complete a degree compared with those who have never used the drug.

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Teens who Smoke Cannabis Daily 'Seven Times More Likely to Commit Suicide' youth, suicide

Teenagers who start smoking cannabis daily before the age of 17 are seven times more likely to commit suicide, a study has found.

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Study: Teens who smoke weed daily are 60% less likely to complete high school than those who never use youth, dropout, high school, addiction, suicide

Teenagers who smoke marijuana daily are over 60 percent less likely to complete high school than those who never use. They're also 60 percent less likely to graduate college and seven times more likely to attempt suicide.

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Bill Bennett: This notion that marijuana isn't that harmful is just plain wrong harm, Colorado-0, youth 71
August 2014- Legalization of MJ Impact Colorado Colorado-0, youth, car crashes 2, Death, exposure, alcohol 72
Where Americans smoke marijuana the most youth, usage, map 73
Florida Medical Marijuana Dangerous? Calvina Fay Claims Legal Weed Amendment Is Really Recreational Marijuana youth, amendment 74
Patrick Kennedy: Legalizing pot endangers children youth, Brain 75
Comparing Alcohol and Marijuana: Seriously alcohol, Research, youth 76
Voters in two states to consider legalizing recreational pot in 2014 youth, addiction 77
NIDA review summarizes research on marijuana’s negative health effects addiction, youth, Effects 78
Legalise cannabis – and children will pay the price youth, mafia, Potency, Colorado, edibles

The emerging marijuana industry in Colorado is trying to appeal to teenagers by offering cannabis-infused soda, chocolate taffy and jujubes.

79
Child Proof Pot youth, Children, poisoning, emergency room

One such statistic is a spike in calls to poison control centers. According to the National Poison Data System, calls about accidental ingestion of marijuana in children 9 and younger more than tripled in states that decriminalized marijuana before 2005. In states that enacted legalization from 2005 to 2011, calls increased nearly 11.5 percent per year. Over the same period in states without decriminalization laws, the call rate stayed the same.

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Marijuana- 2014 Dr. Madras Presentation madras, opioid, Pregnancy, youth, powerpoint, Brain 81
Don't be Doped, Smoking Pot is NOT medicine. risks, youth 82
Dumb and dumber? Teen marijuana use linked to lower IQ in later life youth, IQ 83
NIDA review summarizes research on marijuana’s negative health effects youth, NIDA

The scientists focus on marijuana’s harmful effects on teens, an age group in which the brain rapidly develops, which is one factor that could help explain increased risks from marijuana use in this population. Research suggests that marijuana impairs critical thinking and memory functions during use and that these deficits persist for days after using. 

84
Medical marijuana laws in 50 states: investigating the relationship between state legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse and dependence legalization, youth, Studies, Research

States that legalized medical marijuana had higher rates of marijuana use. Future research needs to examine whether the association is causal, or is due to an underlying common cause, such as community norms supportive of the legalization of medical marijuana and of marijuana use.

85
Smoking marijuana as a teenager lowers IQ for LIFE, scientists warn Studies, Brain, youth, Impairment, memory

The damaging effects remain even if the person stops smoking the drug
·         Teenagers are at particular risk because their brains are still developing
·         Smoking cannabis affects critical thinking and memory
·         Researchers warn that stronger varieties today are causing more damage 

86
Considering Cannabis: The Effects of Regular Cannabis Use on Neurocognition in Adolescents and Young Adults. Neurocognition, adolescent, youth

In this review, we will provide a detailed overview of studies outlining the effects of regular (at least weekly) cannabis use on neurocognition, including studies outlining cognitive, structural and functional findings. We will also explore the public health impact of this research.

87
Cannabis Use Is Quantitatively Associated with Nucleus Accumbens and Amygdala Abnormalities in Young Adult Recreational Users Studies, Medical, Brain, youth 88
NIDA's Dr. Nora Volkow Discusses Marijuana's Effects on the Brain, Body & Behavior video, youth, Brain, body, Behavior 89
More teenagers smoke pot in states with “medical” marijuana laws youth, Medical, states 90
What Is Marijuana? What Is Cannabis? Active Ingredients, body, Side-Effects, youth

This article focuses on cannabis' medicinal and recreational aspects.

Cannabis, the plant, contains over 400 chemicals, including a penicillin-like antibiotic, cannabidiolic acid. The Cannabis plants' chemical derivatives can be used for either recreational or therapeutic (medicinal) purposes.

91
Cannabis Use in Teens Linked to Irreparable Drop in IQ Studies, youth, Brain

"Our results suggest that adolescents are particularly vulnerable to develop cognitive impairment from cannabis and that the drug, far from being harmless, as many teens and even adults are coming to believe, can have severe neurotoxic effects on the adolescent brain,"..

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Impact in Colorado of legalizing marijuana- April 2013 (Data is before recreational legalization.) Colorado-0, car crashes 2, youth, emergency room 93
Regular marijuana use by teens continues to be a concern youth, Teens 94
Twins Study Links Early Marijuana Use to Increased Risk of Abuse or Dependence youth, risks 95
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