Brain

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Carol Falkowski: Marijuana and adolescents: Caution Public Health, Brain, Long-term, short-term, Falkowski

Everyone should be concerned:  Voters, not medical practitioners or scientists, have been able to determine medical practice.
Beneath it all, however, we must pause to seriously consider the known, detrimental effects of repeated marijuana use on the developing adolescent brain.  We must act accordingly and responsibly in ways that promote the public health and safety, help delay initiation of use, and reduce, not increase, the accessibility of marijuana to this particularly vulnerable population.

Learn more about the risks marijuana use poses to your health. Brain, heart, lungs, mental health, poisoning, Pregnancy, driving, CDC, stroke

Here are just a few of the health effects you may want to know:

  • Marijuana use directly affects the brain—specifically the parts of the brain responsible for memory, learning, and attention.
  • The compounds in marijuana can affect the circulatory system and may increase the risk of heart attacks and strokes.
  • Smoking marijuana can lead to a greater risk of bronchitis, cough, and phlegm production.
  • Marijuana users are significantly more likely than nonusers to develop chronic mental disorders, including schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a type of mental illness where people might see or hear things that aren't really there (hallucinations).
  • Eating foods or drinking beverages that contain marijuana have some different risks than smoking marijuana, including a greater risk of poisoning.
  • About 1 in 10 marijuana users will become addicted. For people who begin using before the age of 18, that number rises to 1 in 6.
  • Some research shows that using marijuana while you are pregnant[288 KB] can cause health problems in newborns—including low birth weight and developmental problems.
  • Marijuana use can slow your reaction time and ability to make decisions when driving[271 KB].

 

Marijuana use in early adolescence may affect verbal IQ IQ, youth usage, Brain

"The study suggests that the effects of cannabis use on verbal intelligence are explained not by neurotoxic effects on the brain, but rather by a possible social mechanism," said lead author Natalie Castellanos-Ryan, Assistant Professor at Universite de Montreal in Canada

Parsing the Contradictions: Marijuana and the Brain Brain, dana foundation, Neuroscience

“We see specific morphological changes in the brain to important neurotransmitter systems, and individuals who are exposed to THC early in life show greater sensitivity to opiates than others do,” she said. “We know that the brain definitely adapts to marijuana. It is profoundly changing the receptors and receptor signaling that impact gene expression. And the changes it makes last through adulthood and even into the next generation. So we see that there’s something about the ongoing processes in the developing brain that this drug somehow sensitizes—in the cells, the receptors, and in the signaling cascades—that makes kids more vulnerable to addiction and other problems later.”

“There is a lot of optimism for what components of the marijuana plant may offer on a medicinal level but, like all other drugs, the caveat is that you have to know what it does, what population it can be used for, and who could be vulnerable to its effects. We need a lot more research before we can say anything concrete about its future as a treatment.”

 

What Educators Should Know About Marijuana Infographics, educators, Brain, youth, charts

KNOW YOUR A,B,C,D’s   …  Absent, Behavior, Course Grade = Drugs
 

Cannabis use during pregnancy may affect brain development in offspring: Thicker prefrontal cortex Pregnancy, Brain, science daily

Summary: Cannabis use during pregnancy is associated with abnormal brain structure in children, according to a new study. Compared with unexposed children, those who were prenatally exposed to cannabis had a thicker prefrontal cortex, a region of the brain involved in complex cognition, decision-making, and working memory.

Adolescent Cannabinoid Exposure Induces a Persistent Sub-Cortical Hyper-Dopaminergic State and Associated Molecular Adaptations in the Prefrontal Cortex Brain, adolescent, Research

Thus, adolescent THC exposure induced behavioral abnormalities resembling positive and negative schizophrenia-related endophenotypes and a state of neuronal hyperactivity in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) pathway. Furthermore, we observed profound alterations in several prefrontal cortical molecular pathways consistent with sub-cortical DAergic dysregulation. Our findings demonstrate a profound dissociation in relative risk profiles for adolescent versus adulthood exposure to THC in terms of neuronal, behavioral, and molecular markers resembling neuropsychiatric pathology.  

Study: High-potency marijuana linked with neural damage Studies, Brain, Potency

"We found that frequent use of high-potency cannabis significantly affects the structure of white matter fibres in the brain, whether you have psychosis or not," 
The main psychoactive ingredient in weed, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is much more concentrated in modern skunk strains as compared to traditional pot and hash -- up 14 percent as compared to 4 percent.

Medicinal and Recreational Marijuana: What are the Risks? Teens, Research, Studies, Brain, addiction, anxiety, depression, Resource Paper

Brain abnormalities and memory problems were observed in these individuals in their early twenties, two years after they had stopped using marijuana. The cannabis users were noted to have striatal, globus pallidus, and thalamus changes showing these brain regions appearing to shrink and collapse inward. These individuals also had poorer working memory. The earlier the age of cannabis use, the more dramatic the brain changes and memory deficits were noted to be.
Not only does it appear that cannabis use itself is a potential precursor to future drug use, but the age of first use of cannabis and the frequency of cannabis use seem to also be predictors of future substance abuse issues. Studies have shown that over two-thirds of those under the age of 18 who have been admitted to a drug treatment program identify cannabis as their substance of choice.
” One important characteristic that defines a substance use disorder is “an underlying change in brain circuits that may persist beyond detoxification, particularly in individuals with severe disorder"

Six Ways Science Says Marijuana May Hurt Your Health Danger, science, car crashes, Brain, addiction, heart, car crashes
Effects on Marijuana Use on Developing Adolescents adolescent, Brain, Effects, ATTC, video
Marijuana users may have ‘false memories’ Brain, Biomedical, youth, memory, Studies, Research

Participants in a study who had used the drug daily for around three years in their teens had an abnormally shaped hippocampus by the time they were in their early 20s.
They also performed around 18 per cent worse in long-term memory tests than individuals who had never touched the drug.

How pot gives people the munchies Brain, Studies
Medical Marijuana: The State of the Science Studies, Research, medscape, mental health, Side-Effects, heart, lungs, body, Brain, youth, cannabis, Resource Paper

Medical cannabinoids are here to stay, but intellectual honesty is imperative if we are moving toward exploiting their potential benefits. Owing to rising THC concentrations of products, "medical" marijuana is rarely good medicine. This review has identified the dangers associated with whole­plant marijuana, whether used for recreational or for supposedly medical purposes.

Marijuana Effects on Body, Brain & Behavior video, Volkov, NIDA, body, Brain, Behavior
How Marijuana Affects the Brain Infographics, Brain, youth

“It’s a natural plant! What’s the big deal?” —A common declaration among youth who believe that the effects of marijuana are harmless and that the substance shouldn’t be regulated.  Regardless of public opinion, the science is clear:  Regular recreational use of marijuana during adolescence is harmful to the brain, which isn’t fully developed until the age of 25.

Long-term effects of marijuana use on the brain Long-term, Side-Effects, Brain, Research, Studies
The terrible truth about cannabis: Expert's devastating 20-year study finally demolishes claims that smoking pot is harmless Brain, Studies
Pot studies suggest regular use is bad for teen brains Teens, Brain, Studies
Patrick Kennedy: Legalizing pot endangers children youth, Brain
Marijuana- 2014 Dr. Madras Presentation madras, opioid, Pregnancy, youth, powerpoint, Brain
Six Ways Science Says Marijuana May Hurt Your Health addiction, heart, car crashes, Impairment, Death, Brain
Smoking marijuana as a teenager lowers IQ for LIFE, scientists warn Studies, Brain, youth, Impairment, memory

The damaging effects remain even if the person stops smoking the drug
·         Teenagers are at particular risk because their brains are still developing
·         Smoking cannabis affects critical thinking and memory
·         Researchers warn that stronger varieties today are causing more damage 

Cannabis Use Is Quantitatively Associated with Nucleus Accumbens and Amygdala Abnormalities in Young Adult Recreational Users Studies, Medical, Brain, youth
Casual marijuana use linked with brain abnormalities, study finds Research, Brain, young adults, Studies

For the first time, researchers at Northwestern University have analyzed the relationship between casual use of marijuana and brain changes – and found that young adults who used cannabis just once or twice a week showed significant abnormalities in two important brain structures.

NIDA's Dr. Nora Volkow Discusses Marijuana's Effects on the Brain, Body & Behavior video, youth, Brain, body, Behavior
Miswiring the brain Brain, Pregnancy

 cannabis use during pregnancy can increase the risk for ill‐behaviors (Goldschmidt et al2004; Day et al2011
Data suggest that administration of THC during pregnancy can induce long‐term structural and functional modifications of the cortical circuitry.
Maternal cannabis use during pregnancy reduces SCG10 in human fetal cerebrum

Cannabis Use in Teens Linked to Irreparable Drop in IQ Studies, youth, Brain

"Our results suggest that adolescents are particularly vulnerable to develop cognitive impairment from cannabis and that the drug, far from being harmless, as many teens and even adults are coming to believe, can have severe neurotoxic effects on the adolescent brain,"..

Brain Facts- Society of Neuroscience Brain, society of neuroscience

In radioactive tracing studies, scientists found that tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in marijuana, binds to specific receptors called cannabinoid receptors, many of which coordinate movement. This may explain why people who drive after they smoke marijuana are impaired. The hippocampus, a structure involved with memory storage and learning, also contains many receptors for THC. This finding provides some insight into why heavy users or those intoxicated on marijuana have poor short-term memory and problems processing complex information.

Heavy Marijuana Use May Damage Developing Brain In Teens, Young Adult Teen, Brain
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