Pregnancy

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Study shows link between maternal marijuana use and low birth weight Pregnancy

In a new study, researchers in London, Ontario found that women who used marijuana while pregnant were almost three times more likely to have an infant with low birth weight than women who did not use marijuana.

Marijuana and Pregnancy Pregnancy, 2017 Legislation

Marijuana use during pregnancy can be harmful to your baby’s health. The chemicals in marijuana (in particular,tetrahydrocannabinol or THC) pass through your systemto your baby and can negatively affect your baby’s development.

Learn more about the risks marijuana use poses to your health. Brain, heart, lungs, mental health, poisoning, Pregnancy, driving, CDC, stroke

Here are just a few of the health effects you may want to know:

  • Marijuana use directly affects the brain—specifically the parts of the brain responsible for memory, learning, and attention.
  • The compounds in marijuana can affect the circulatory system and may increase the risk of heart attacks and strokes.
  • Smoking marijuana can lead to a greater risk of bronchitis, cough, and phlegm production.
  • Marijuana users are significantly more likely than nonusers to develop chronic mental disorders, including schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a type of mental illness where people might see or hear things that aren't really there (hallucinations).
  • Eating foods or drinking beverages that contain marijuana have some different risks than smoking marijuana, including a greater risk of poisoning.
  • About 1 in 10 marijuana users will become addicted. For people who begin using before the age of 18, that number rises to 1 in 6.
  • Some research shows that using marijuana while you are pregnant[288 KB] can cause health problems in newborns—including low birth weight and developmental problems.
  • Marijuana use can slow your reaction time and ability to make decisions when driving[271 KB].

 

Marijuana and Opioid Conncection Colorado, Pregnancy, opioid, video

Connection between legalization of marijuana and increase opioid addiction.
The effects of marijuana on the brain of an unborn child. Predisposing children for addiction. Here are the studies cited. 

The Marijuana-Opioid Connection
Cannabis use during pregnancy may affect brain development in offspring: Thicker prefrontal cortex Pregnancy, Brain, science daily

Summary: Cannabis use during pregnancy is associated with abnormal brain structure in children, according to a new study. Compared with unexposed children, those who were prenatally exposed to cannabis had a thicker prefrontal cortex, a region of the brain involved in complex cognition, decision-making, and working memory.

Study shows marijuana users twice as likely to give birth prematurely Pregnancy, Studies

For the researchers of the study, the results present a “a major public health concern” as a number of pregnant women would report taking marijuana to alleviate morning sickness or nausea – without knowing of the adverse side-effects.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0890623816300715#    

Highlights

Marijuana increases the risk of spontaneous preterm birth independent of cigarette smoking status and socio-economic status.

Women who continue to use marijuana at 20 weeks’ gestation are five times more likely to deliver preterm than those who do not.

The rate of early SPTB is higher amongst women who continue to use marijuana at 20 weeks’ gestation.

Cannabis During Pregnancy Impairs Baby's Brain Development Pregnancy

Children whose mothers use marijuana during pregnancy have a higher risk of stunted growth and of developing ADHD, anxiety, and depression later in life.
When THC enters the body, it interferes with endocannabinoid’s actions, competing with it for binding sites on target cells and generally getting its way.

Marijuana exposure in utero has lifelong consequences Utero, Pregnancy

 But at a bare minimum, these findings suggest we should be avoiding recreational cannabis use during pregnancy. 

Mother's and marijuana use NIDA, Pregnancy, vidoe, Dr. Genna, Dr. Natacha, interview

My main finding is that it's primarily women who were younger when they become mothers who do continue to use marijuana overtime. Also women who are depressed over longer periods of time, women who smoke, women who use more than the recommended amount of alcohol are more likely to continue to use marijuana while pregnant as well as when they're raising their children. So the take-home messages is to ask women about marijuana use. We know that marijuana use is considered more and more acceptable by women and that they may continue to use while they are pregnant and while they are having children.

ASAM Public Policy Statement on Marijuana, Cannabinoids and Legalization Pregnancy, addiction, cigarettes, edibles, Research, Studies
  • Prenatal exposure to marijuana has been shown to be predictive of psychotic symptoms in young adulthood.
  • Monitoring the Future survey reported a five-year decline in the perceived harm of regularly smoking marijuana, from 52.4% of high school seniors to 36.1%
  • Marijuana is the most widely used illegal drug in the United States and it is estimated that it is used by 61% of all persons suffering from a substance use disorder related to drugs other than alcohol.
  • The risk of developing addiction associated with cannabis use has been reported to increase to about 17% among those who start using marijuana in adolescence, and to 25-50% among those who smoke marijuana daily.
  • Smoke from marijuana combustion has been shown to contain a number of carcinogens and cocarcinogens, as well as many of the toxins, irritants, and carcinogens as tobacco smoke. 
  • Marijuana-infused edibles account for 45% of the legal marijuana marketplace.
  • AMA Marijuana has a high potential for abuse. It has no scientifically proven, currently accepted medical use for preventing or treating any disease process in the United States.

 

Number Using Opioids and Marijuana on the Rise

Chart: Colorado among states with growing heroin, prescription drug abuse problem 

Consistent with the past, in 2014 still only 47 percent of operators involved in traffic deaths were tested for drug impairment.

 

Public Policy Statement on Marijuana, Cannabinoids and Legalization Research, legalization, asam, Long-term, Pregnancy, adolescent, youth, cigarettes

Given these statistics.... is legalization worth the consequences....
Cannabis has been found to be the most frequently used drug in the U.S. after alcohol, tobacco and caffeine. 
The risk of developing addiction associated with cannabis use has been reported to increase to about 17% among those who start using marijuana in adolescence, and to 25-50% among those who smoke marijuana daily.
The long-term effects of marijuana use include altered brain development and cognitive impairment, including impaired neural connectivity in specific brain regions, decreased activity in prefrontal regions, and reduced volumes in the hippocampus.
Cannabis is most commonly consumed through smoking, a route of drug delivery that predictably has a variety of negative effects on pulmonary function. Smoke from marijuana combustion has been shown to contain a number of carcinogens and cocarcinogens, as well as many of the toxins, irritants, and carcinogens as tobacco smoke.  Additionally, marijuana smokers tend to inhale more deeply and hold their breath longer than cigarette smokers, which leads to a greater exposure per breath to “tar” (the carcinogenic solids in smoke). Regular smoking of marijuana, in the absence of tobacco, produces visible and microscopic injury to the large airways
http://www.asam.org/docs/default-source/publicy-policy-statements/mariju...

Marijuana- Newborns and Pregnancy Infographics, Pregnancy
ACOG: Doctors Should Urge Against Prenatal Marijuana Use Pregnancy, Doctors, Research

Studies show that children exposed to marijuana in utero have lower scores on tests of visual problem-solving, visual and motor coordination, and visual analysis, compared with children not exposed to the drug, the report states. Prenatal marijuana exposure also has been associated with decreased attention span and behavioral problems. The nervous system of a human fetus can respond to the chemicals in marijuana within 14 weeks of gestation, and studies have shown that 14-year-olds are more likely to be marijuana users if their mothers used the drug during pregnancy.

Fox News doctor: ‘Crack babies’ come from women ‘smoking this whole marijuana business’ Pregnancy, baby, youth, addiction, news video clip, news article
Colorado’s ‘Pot Pregnancies’ Birthing New Generation of Crack Babies Colorado, Pregnancy, baby
Marijuana report says pot dangerous for pregnant woman and baby Pregnancy

"We found moderate evidence that maternal use of marijuana during pregnancy is associated with negative effects on exposed offspring, including decreased academic ability, cognitive function and attention. Importantly, these effects may not appear until adolescence.

Medical Marijuana: The State of the Science Potency, Studies, lungs, cigarettes, Pregnancy

State of the Science   190 resources
Several problems are associated with marijuana use during pregnancy, because prenatal exposure influences brain development and can result in permanent cognitive impairment. [35] Cognitive deficits resulting from prenatal exposure include inattention; impulsivity; and impairment in learning, memory, and certain aspects of executive functioning. [36] In addition, prenatal exposure to cannabis has been associated with reduction of fetal growth. [37]
For many years, the myth of smoked cannabis being "healthier" or "no worse" than smoked tobacco was perpetuated by pro­marijuana groups. Both smoked cannabis and tobacco contain approximately 4000 chemicals and that these chemicals are essentially identical in both plants.In another recent review, [23] the authors concluded that "smoking of cannabis is not medically recommended due to the potential respiratory tract, dangers of noxious compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tar and carbon monoxide."
 
 

It's not your mother's marijuana: effects on maternal-fetal health and the developing child. Effects, Pregnancy, PubMed

#no2Pot

Monitoring Health Concerns Related to Marijuana in Colorado: 2014 Colorado, health, Pregnancy, youth, Report, Statistical Reports

Appendix

Changes in Marijuana Use Patterns, Systematic Literature Review, and Possible Marijuana-Related Health Effects

Neuronal substrates and functional consequences of prenatal cannabis exposure Pregnancy

Therefore, disrupted temporal and/or spatial precision of cannabinoid receptor activation, especially due to in utero cannabis exposure, can destabilize finely tuned signalling networks resulting in altered brain circuit formation and sensitivity to secondary insults. 
 

Birth outcomes associated with cannabis use before and during pregnancy. Pregnancy, Research
Marijuana- 2014 Dr. Madras Presentation madras, opioid, Pregnancy, youth, powerpoint, Brain
Cannabis During Pregnancy Impairs Baby's Brain Development Pregnancy, Research
Miswiring the brain Brain, Pregnancy

 cannabis use during pregnancy can increase the risk for ill‐behaviors (Goldschmidt et al2004; Day et al2011
Data suggest that administration of THC during pregnancy can induce long‐term structural and functional modifications of the cortical circuitry.
Maternal cannabis use during pregnancy reduces SCG10 in human fetal cerebrum

Parental THC Exposure Leads to Compulsive Heroin-Seeking and Altered Striatal Synaptic Plasticity in the Subsequent Generation. Studies, THC, Pregnancy, Consequences

Recent attention has been focused on the long-term impact of cannabis exposure, for which experimental animal studies have validated causal relationships between neurobiological and behavioral alterations during the individual's lifetime.

Effects of Marijuana on the Fetus and Breastfeeding Infants. Pregnancy

Cannabis has enormous affinity for milk and produces a milk/plasma ratio of 8, although the levels in milk are generally considered subclinical. THC crosses the placenta readily, and there is increasing evidence that it may increase rates of growth retardation and adverse neurodevelopment following prenatal exposure.
 
One study indicated an increased incidence of reduced head circumference in young adolescents (9-12 years of age) who were exposed in utero to heavy marijuana use.  Prenatal exposure resulted in a higher rate of low birth weight infants and childhood leukemia. Recent studies have suggested a reduction in long and short-term memory retrieval and retention in children exposed to prenatal cannabis. These children were also weak in planning, integration, and judgment skills.
 
While the effect of cannabis on infants from breastfeeding mothers is limited, cannabis use in breastfeeding mothers should be strongly discouraged. Thus, in pregnant and breastfeeding mothers, this drug should no longer be viewed as safe.

Effects of Marijuana on the Fetus and Breastfeeding Infants. Pregnancy, Research
Birth outcomes associated with cannabis use before and during pregnancy. Pregnancy

Records for 24,874 women: The results of this study show that the use of cannabis in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of adverse birth outcomes. Prevention programs that address cannabis use during pregnancy are needed.
 Multivariate analysis, controlling for potential confounders, including tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and use of other illicit drugs, showed that cannabis use in pregnancy was associated with low birth weight, preterm labor, small for gestational age, and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit.

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