Impact on our Youth

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Utah, postition statement, Sheriff, Black Market, youth usage, zoning

“So called medical marijuana in other states has become a farce and a sham. The average user of smoked medical marijuana has no chronic illness and is a white male in his mid-30s with a history of drug and alcohol abuse. . . In the last 20 years and due to market demand, constant genetic engineering has increased THC potency in marijuana plants, and extraction-concentration methods are becoming extremely popular and widespread. become addicted.”Marijuana is the 2nd leading cause of impaired driving arrests. One in six adolescents trying marijuana will become addicted.
“In the city of Denver since the legalization of marijuana Denver Police Department is dealing with a 900% increase in the unlawful cultivation and manufacture of marijuana concentrate, and a 99% increase in unlawful distribution of marijuana and marijuana concentrate.
Marijuana is the #1 problem in Colorado schools. In school year 2015-16, 63% of all drug related school suspensions were for marijuana. 58% of all drug related school expulsions were for marijuana. 73% of all drug related school referrals to law enforcement were for marijuana violations. Youth past month marijuana use is 74% higher than the national average.

meta-analysis, PDV, adolescent, Studies, Research, ncbi

Findings suggest that marijuana use is associated with a 54% increase in the odds PDV (physical dating violence) victimization, and a 45% increase in the odds of perpetration. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that dating violence is a correlate of marijuana use, and that association is strongest among adolescents (vs. emerging adults) and girls (vs. boys).

adolescent, legalization, opinion

Adolescent marijuana use has significantly increased in our state post-legalization, as has been documented in numerous studies. Ask any teenager and they will tell you that marijuana use is rampant in our local high schools, which is obviously not surprising given its widespread availability and the perception of its safety. While we can debate the effects on adults, marijuana use clearly has a detrimental impact on a teenager.

Read more here: http://www.tri-cityherald.com/opinion/letters-to-the-editor/article13776...

IQ, youth usage, Brain

"The study suggests that the effects of cannabis use on verbal intelligence are explained not by neurotoxic effects on the brain, but rather by a possible social mechanism," said lead author Natalie Castellanos-Ryan, Assistant Professor at Universite de Montreal in Canada

youth usage, legalization

If the changes observed in Washington are attributable to legalization, why were there no changes found in Colorado? The authors suggest that this may have been because Colorado’s medical marijuana laws were much more liberal before legalization than those in Washington. After 2009, Colorado permitted medical marijuana to be supplied through for-profit dispensaries and allowed advertising of medical marijuana products. This hypothesis is supported by other evidence that the perceived risks of marijuana use decreased and marijuana use increased among young people in Colorado after these changes in 2009.

monitoring the future, 2016, youth usage

This year, daily marijuana use exceeded cigarette use among 10th (2.5 vs. 1.9 percent) as well as 12th (6.0 vs. 4.8 percent) graders.

academics, Amendment 2, school board, School

Research findings on the topic of marijuana use and its impact on people’s health and on society have been mixed; however, in the midst of diverse conclusions, it is essential to err on the side of caution for our community’s youth. According to a publication by the American Psychological Association (APA), short-term marijuana use has been shown to impair attention, memory, learning and decision-making.

Read more here: http://www.miamiherald.com/opinion/op-ed/article120529268.html#storylink...

Colorado, homeless, students

The Governor is now proposing new and significant budget cuts for this upcoming legislation session in the following areas:  capital construction for our schools, health and human services,  public safety/courts, healthcare including Colorado hospitals, and education including K-12 and higher education.  Areas that have experienced and reported increased negative impacts and/or costs associated with increased marijuana availability/commercialization.  

Areas mentioned where marijuana tax revenues will be spent highlight some of the negative impacts from increased marijuana availability/commercialization, and include:  

"Hiring of more mental health professionals in schools and child welfare caseworkers“

$18 million program to create affordable housing for the homeless" (Denver has reported dramatic increases in student homelessness as has other areas in Colorado.)

education, PubMed, Studies

CONCLUSIONS:
Medical marijuana law exposure between age 14 to 18 likely has a delayed effect on use and education that persists over time.

dropout, college, youth, young adults
Infographics, educators, Brain, youth, charts

KNOW YOUR A,B,C,D’s   …  Absent, Behavior, Course Grade = Drugs
 

Colorado, School, School District

“Ultimately, the school districts can figure it out,” Singer said, “or the state will figure it out for you.”  So far, some school districts — including Boulder Valley, Jefferson and Douglas County — are  working on policies or have produced them.

Colorado, School

The bill allows a student to use medical marijuana on school grounds, on a school bus, or at a school activity and requires each school district to adopt a policy allowing the medical marijuana use. If the department of education or a public school loses any federal funding as a result of adopting the policy, the general assembly shall appropriate state money sufficient to offset the loss of federal money.  http://openstates.org/co/bills/2016A/HB16-1373/

 

youth usage, prevention

“Many existing marijuana intervention programs target students age 15 and older,” Chen said. “Our findings demonstrate the need to start drug education much earlier, in the fourth or fifth grade. This gives us an opportunity to make a preemptive strike before they actually start using marijuana.”

Colorado, youth usage, School
  • The 2013/2014 survey results show Colorado youth ranked No. 1 in the nation for past month marijuana use, up from No. 4 in 2011/2012.
  • Colorado youth past month marijuana use for 2013/2014 was 74 percent higher than the national average (12.56 percent vs. 7.22 percent).
youth, adolescent, Psychosis

Analysis indicated that for each year adolescent boys engaged in regular marijuana use, their projected level of subsequent subclinical psychotic symptoms increased by 21% and projected risk for subclinical paranoia or hallucinations increased by 133% and 92%, respectively.

edibles, Colorado, youth

"The rapid growth in concentrates and edibles is the continuation of a two-year trend, as consumers increasingly prefer alternative consumption methods to smoking," BDS Analytics CEO Roy Bingham told Civilized in an e-mail. 
Also, increased are hospitalization, ER visits and vehicle fatal accidents. 

Colorado, School, School District

The law and D49's policy only allows non-smokeable marijuana to be used on school grounds. The medicine would have to be brought, administered, and taken away from the school by the student's primary caregiver. No school employee would be required to give the student cannabis.

SAMHSA, youth
Infographics, high school, School, academics
youth, Death, Washington

Warsame told his schoolmate he had never smoked marijuana and would like to try it, and the two smoked together, according to the report.

A toxicology screen by the medical examiner found “relatively high levels”  of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent in marijuana, in Warsame’s system.

youth, SAMHSA


With youth usage and perception of harm having significantly  increased the past 4 it would be better to compare data to 10 years ago not last year.

American Academy of Pediatrics, youth, Research, Side-Effects

In summary, marijuana use is harmful to children and adolescents.  For this reason, the American College of Pediatricians opposes its legalization for recreational use and urges extreme caution in legalizing it for medicinal use.  Likewise, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) recently offered their own policy statement opposing efforts to legalize marijuana. They similarly pointed out that “marijuana’s deleterious effects on adolescent brain development, cognition, and social functioning may have immediate and long-term implications, including increased risk of motor vehicle accidents, sexual victimization, academic failure, lasting decline in intelligence measures, psychopathology, addiction, and psychosocial and occupational impairment.” Thus the AACAP (a) opposes efforts to legalize marijuana, (b) supports initiatives to increase awareness of marijuana’s harmful effects on adolescents, (c) supports improved access to evidence-based treatment, rather than emphasis on criminal charges, for adolescents with cannabis use disorder, and (d) supports careful monitoring of the effects of marijuana-related policy changes on child and adolescent mental health.49 The College agrees with this position on marijuana.

addiction, youth, Studies

A new study suggests marijuana smokers may be significantly more likely to develop an addiction to other drugs and alcohol than people who don’t use marijuana.
The study, published in JAMA Psychiatry, included almost 35,000 adults who were interviewed three years apart. At the time of the first interview, almost 1,300 used marijuana. After three years, two-thirds of people who used marijuana had some form of substance use disorder, compared with less than 20 percent of people who did not use marijuana in the previous year.

Brain, adolescent, Research

Thus, adolescent THC exposure induced behavioral abnormalities resembling positive and negative schizophrenia-related endophenotypes and a state of neuronal hyperactivity in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) pathway. Furthermore, we observed profound alterations in several prefrontal cortical molecular pathways consistent with sub-cortical DAergic dysregulation. Our findings demonstrate a profound dissociation in relative risk profiles for adolescent versus adulthood exposure to THC in terms of neuronal, behavioral, and molecular markers resembling neuropsychiatric pathology.  

SAMHSA, youth usage

The top 10 states with the highest adolescent marijuana use rates in 2013-2014 were all states that legalized pot as medicine or as recreation. The lowest adolescent use rates were reported in states where marijuana has not been legalized as medicine or as recreation. How can pro-pots argue that legalization will reduce youth marijuana use? Stats prove otherwise!

--Of the 10 states with the highest rates of past month marijuana use among adolescents, 5 were in the Northeast (Vermont, Rhode Island, Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts), 4 were in the West (Colorado, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska), and 1 was in the South (District of Columbia)

 

Colorado, impact, youth

January 2016 Update:
YOUTH USAGE: 
• In the two year average (2013/2014) since Colorado legalized recreational marijuana, youth past month marijuana use increased 20 percent compared to the two year average prior to legalization (2011/2012). o Nationally youth past month marijuana use declined 4 percent during the same time.
• The latest 2013/2014 results show Colorado youth ranked #1 in the nation for past month marijuana use, up from #4 in 2011/2012.
COLLEGE USAGE:
•Colorado college age past month marijuana use for 2013/2014 was 62 percent higher than the national average
ADULT USAGE:
•The latest 2013/2014 results show Colorado adults ranked #1 in the nation for past month marijuana use, up from #7 in 2011/2012.
• Colorado adult past month marijuana use for 2013/2014 was 104 percent higher than the national average compared to 51 percent higher in 2011/2012.

alcohol, youth usage

alcohol, adolescent

Adolescent cannabis use increased the odds of non-progression with formal education.

  • Associations for adolescent alcohol use were inconsistent and weaker.
  • Cannabis use accounted for a greater proportion of the overall rate of educational underachievement than alcohol use.
  • Findings inform the debate about the relative harms of cannabis and alcohol use.
Arizona, education, exposure

With considerable discussion about Arizona’s education funding, along with high school and college graduation rates, shouldn’t we do all we can to improve our state of education instead of making it much worse by legalizing marijuana?
The Journal Clinical Pediatrics has also found an over 600 percent increase in the amount of marijuana exposure to children six and under in states with marijuana-friendly legislation.

youth, Medical

Is legal 'medical' marijuana linked to high youth substance abuse rates?

Let's look at Colorado's substance abuse rates in 2011- 2012 when medical marijuana was legal but recreational pot was not, Colorado youth ages 12- 17 and 18- 25 ranked in the top percentiles for most substance abuse rates: illicit drugs, marijuana, cocaine, non-medical use of painkillers and ranked the lowest for perception of great risk of smoking marijuana.

Myth, news article, THC, youth, Harmless

Levy says. “We are simply not prepared for the fallout of marijuana legalization.”
Each hit of THC rewires the function of this critical cognitive system: Early evidence in mice has shown that repeated exposure to THC causes these receptors to disappear altogether, blunting the natural response to positive behaviors and requiring higher doses to achieve the same effect. Marijuana exploits essential pathways we’ve evolved to retrieve a memory, to delicately regulate our metabolism, and to derive happiness from everyday life.

cannabis; vaping; electronic cigarette; adolescence, youth

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic investigations are also required. Finally, the health consequences of passive vaping should be also considered.  
In conclusion, the new social phenomenon of vaping may slide from nicotine towards other psychoactive drugs (e.g., THC); it therefore deserves the urgent scientific investigation and strict risk assessments which are especially important when young people are concerned. In particular, the presence of toxic substances in the cannabis aerosols generated by e-cigs—from multiple models, brands, BHO and e-liquid manufacturers—need to be investigated.

Research, legalization, asam, Long-term, Pregnancy, adolescent, youth, cigarettes

Given these statistics.... is legalization worth the consequences....
Cannabis has been found to be the most frequently used drug in the U.S. after alcohol, tobacco and caffeine. 
The risk of developing addiction associated with cannabis use has been reported to increase to about 17% among those who start using marijuana in adolescence, and to 25-50% among those who smoke marijuana daily.
The long-term effects of marijuana use include altered brain development and cognitive impairment, including impaired neural connectivity in specific brain regions, decreased activity in prefrontal regions, and reduced volumes in the hippocampus.
Cannabis is most commonly consumed through smoking, a route of drug delivery that predictably has a variety of negative effects on pulmonary function. Smoke from marijuana combustion has been shown to contain a number of carcinogens and cocarcinogens, as well as many of the toxins, irritants, and carcinogens as tobacco smoke.  Additionally, marijuana smokers tend to inhale more deeply and hold their breath longer than cigarette smokers, which leads to a greater exposure per breath to “tar” (the carcinogenic solids in smoke). Regular smoking of marijuana, in the absence of tobacco, produces visible and microscopic injury to the large airways
http://www.asam.org/docs/default-source/publicy-policy-statements/mariju...

parenting, youth

Survey highlights:

  • Parents still have a big influence over their children when it comes to using marijuana.
  • More than 60 percent of marijuana users don't think it's addictive or damaging to the brain.
  • One in 10 surveyed report being high at school and while driving, on a daily basis.
youth, opinion, college

The commonly heard expression that “no one ever died from a marijuana overdose” minimizes the cost of unmet potential and inability to fully engage in the challenges of daily life. Scientific research cites multiple impacts of the recreational misuse of marijuana.

youth, perception, usage

This week, the Department of Health and Human Services found that marijuana use among all Americans 12 and over – especially those over 26 – significantly increased in 2014 compared to 2013. The number of 16 and 17 year-olds using marijuana in the past month also increased, (14.2% versus 15.0%).

Vaping, youth

Rates of vaporizing cannabis using e-cigarettes were high. These findings raise concerns about the lack of e-cigarette regulations and the potential use of e-cigarettes for purposes other than vaping nicotine.

Vaping, youth

About 27% of high school students who have used both marijuana and e-cigarettes reported using the devices to vaporize cannabis. Those most likely to vaporize pot with e-cigarettes included males and younger students.

Colorado, Potency, youth usage, vehicle, social costs, Business

See report for details, graphs, data.